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Arunachal Pradesh, the northeastern most state of India, is the biggest state amongst the NE states in terms of geographical area (83,743 sq. km).Lohit District is situated in the foot hills of eastern part of the Himalaya with a geographical area of 5212 sq. km, surrounded by Anjaw District in the East, Changlang District and Assam in the South, Part of Lower Dibang Valley District in the North, Assam State and part of Lower Dibang Valley District to the West. Lohit district experiences vast topographical and altitudinal variations that range from 140 to 686 meters above Mean Sea Level. The District is named after its principal river LOHIT, which flows through Eastern Tibet and enters India in Kibithoo area, and enters Lohit district at PARASHURAM KUND, a famous place of pilgrimage for the Hindus. River Kamlang and Noa Dihing are the other main rivers flowing across the Southern part of the district. Agriculture is the major source of livelihood for most of the people of Lohit district but the rivers traversing the region cause soil erosion which consequently pose serious problem like flood and water stagnation on the cropping areas. Lohit district can be broadly divided into following agro-ecological zones.

 

Agro-ecological zones of Lohit District

 
Circle
Agro-ecological zones
Altitudes (msl)

Lekang, Namsai,Chongkham, Piyong, Lathao

Sub-tropical-Riverine, plain-floodProne

140-177
Tezu, Sunpura
Sub-tropical-foot hill
154-210
Wakro
Sub temperate-mid hill
686
 

The climate of the district varies from place to place. The foot hill area is quite hot during summer (16 0C -36 0C) and moderately cold in winter, where as in the higher altitude places, the climate is pleasant during summer but the winter is extremely cold (5 0C-25 0C).

The rainfall of the district is also quite variable. Where Tezu recorded 110.43 mm of rainfall, Wakro recorded 3644.67 mm in for the year 2005. Again, in the year 2007 an average mean annual rainfall of 3516.5 mm was recorded.

The district is divided into 2 sub-divisions and 8 administrative circles. The district has a total population of 1,25,086 and 222 villages. Total ST population is 40,552 and SC population is 1796.

 
Sub-division
Circle
Year of set up
Distance from H.Q(km)
Population

Total No. of Households

Altitude

(msl)
Total Males Females
(m)
A. Tezu
Tezu
1948
H.Q
16289
8941
7348
10631
210
Sunpura
1982
30
4815
2542
2273
974
154
B.Namsai
Namsai
1953

Via Brumma kund =127.62

Via Alubarighat=57
16823
8964
7859
11747
140
Chongkham
1956

Via Brumma kund =99.62

Via Alubarighat=27
20086
10766
9320
3845
177
Wakro
1965

Via Brumma kund =60

Via Alubarighat=71
6809
3654
3155
1593
686
Lekang
1977

Via Brumma kund =141

Via Alubarighat=65

24447
12753
11694
3948
140
Piyong
1997

Via Brumma kund =144

Via Alubarighat=73
9055
4785
4270
9055
164
Lathao
2005

Via Brumma kund =120

Via Alubarighat=47
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
 
Land use pattern of Lohit district (2005-06)
Total geographical area :
5212 sq.km.
Net Area sown :
41977 ha
Fallow lands :
1866 ha
Current fallows :
2258 ha
Cultivable waste lands :
2088 ha
Forest cover :
10327.145 sq.km.
Barren and uncultivated lands :
48965 ha
Land put to not agricultural use :
1687 ha
 

The soil of the district is shallow, light-textured and low in fertility. These are acidic in reaction with pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5. These soil types are quite productive.

 

Soil Type of the Lohit district(Circle wise)

 
S.No.
Circle
Soil texture
1
Lekang, Namsai, Chongkham, Lathao, Piyong Alluvial clay loam soil
2
Tezu, Sunpura Sandy loam soil
3
Wakro Black sandy soil
 

Demographic overview (Census, 2001)

According to 2001 Population Census, the district had a population of 125086 persons comprising 67150 males and 57936 females. The Urban population is 26762 and rural population is 98324. The sex ratio, i.e. Number of females per thousand males is 862 and the density of population is 24 persons per sq. km. There were 28537 residential house holds in the district under 487 villages. And percentage of literacy is 56.07.

According to the census report, the scheduled caste population in the district is 18441 and scheduled tribe population is 14249.

In Lohit district, a portion of the population is tribal people, which constitutes 32.4% of the total population of the district. The major tribes inhabiting the Lohit district are the Mishmis, Khamptis and Sinphos. The other tribes are Deori, Mishing, Adi, Sonowal, Kachari, Ahom, Koibatra, Samua Miri and Napali. The Tibetans and Chakmas who came as refugees are also living in the districts. As per population census the total workers engaged in cultivation is 57.64%, where Males constitute 32.33% and Females 25.4%. Total agricultural labours is 6.53% in which, the Males constitute 3.70% and Females 2.83%.

 

LOHIT DISTRICT AT A GLANCE

(a) Name of district :Lohit
(b) Head Quarter of the district : Tezu
(c) Number of sub-division(s) : 2(two)
(d) Name of the sub-divisions :1)Tezu 2) Namsai
(e) Total circle : 8(Eight)
(f) Total village :487
(g) River(s)

:14 (Lohit, Noadihing, Kamlang,

Tengapani, Digaru, Berang, Teang, etc)

(h) Nearest Airport :Dibrugarh (Mohanbari)
(i) Nearest railway station :Tinsukia
(j) Location of Helipad : Tezu, Namsai, Mahadevpur
(k) Bordering Districts/State

: Anjaw District- East, Changlang District -South, Part of Lower Dibang Valley District -North, part of Lower Dibang Valley District - West.

Bordering state-Assam in South and West
(l) Total population : 125086 persons
  i. Male : 67150 persons
  ii. Female :57936 persons
(m) Rural population : 98324
  i. Male :52405
  ii. Female :45919
(n) Urban population :26762
  i. Male :14745
  ii. Female :12017
(o) Density per sq.km. : 24 persons per sq. km.
(p) Literacy rate : 47. 6%
  i. Male : 55.5%
  ii. Female :38.4%
(q) S.T population :40552
  i. Male :20532
  ii. Female :20020
(r) S.C population of district :1170
  i. Male :663
  ii. Female :551
 

Agricultural Statistics in Lohit District

 
Net area sown 40427 ha
Cropping intensity 103%
Area coverage under HYV 756 ha
Govt agriculture farm 01
Area under irrigation 4360 ha
Per capita net area sown 1.8 ha
Area brought under fertilizer (NPK) 1500 ha
Consumption of fertilizer 708 qt
Area coverage under plant protection measures 1300 ha
Land development under permanent cultivation 3945 ha
Total area under cereals (2007-08) 19377 ha
Total area under pulses (2007-08) 1865 ha
Total area under oilseeds (2007-08) 11423 ha
Total production of cereals (2007-08 ) 34847 MT
Total production of pulses (2007-08) 2100 MT
Total production of Oilseeds (2007-08) 8930 MT
 

Principal crops, area, production and productivity

 
Sl. No. Principal Crops Area (in ha) Production (in tones) (1 ton=1000kg) Productivity (q/ha)
I
Cereals      
1
Paddy (Irrigated)
2595
8356
32.2
2
Paddy (Rainfed )
7150
16302
22.8
3
Paddy-Jhum
800
592
7.4
4
Maize(Improved)
520
738
14.20
5
Maize-Local
7805
8117
10.40
6
Millet
92
78
8.50
7
Wheat
415
664
16.0
II
Pulses
1.
Black gram
635
610
9.60
2.
Green gram
215
194
9.0
3.
Pea
560
750
13.40
4.
Other (Local)
455
546
12.0
III
Oil Seeds
1.
Mustard
10778
8191
7.6
2.
Sesamum
160
80
5.0
3.
Soyabean
265
411
15.50
4.
Local Soyabean
180
198
11.0
IV
Other food grains
1.
Potato
620
5704
92.0
2.
Sugarcane
20
130
65.0
 

Irrigation status of the district

Irrigation
Area under irrigation : 4360 ha
Irrigation potential : 1297 ha
Source of irrigation  
1.
Rivers : 14 nos
2.
Tanks :0 nos
3.
Open wells :5 nos
4.
Bore wells :0 nos
5.
Any other sources : Spring water well :2 nos

The use of tank, tube well and wells are reported negligible in the district.

 
 

Circle wise livestock population (in number) of Lohit District(Latest census 2003)

 
Circle
Cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Goat
Horse/Ponnies
Pig
Chicken
Duck
Dog
Rabbit
Mithun
Namsai
9276
369
-
1834
-
1112
13565
1274
1036
-
-
Lekang
29156
525
-
14917
327
13006
36708
18864
5829
-
-
Piyong
6970
865
-
2780
-
2100
9249
1827
946
-
-
Chongkham
17104
587
-
4434
-
2607
21591
2097
1289
-
-
Wakro
4501
-
-
1693
-
2111
11599
794
339
-
548
Lathao
4991
617
8
1792
-
794
10730
2641
808
-
-
Tezu
9295
-
-
6047
43
3809
19282
301
1070
-
792
Sunpura
9881
4802
-
1509
-
438
5398
315
340
11
42
 

Infrastructure facilities in Animal husbandry of Lohit District as on 31.03.2006

 
Circle
Veterinary hospital
Veterinary dispensary
Veterinary Aid centre
Cattle upgrading centre
DDL no.
A.I centre
Cattle breeding farm
Layer farm
Poultry breeding farm
Pig breeding farm
Namsai
NA
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
Lekang
NA
1
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
Piyong
NA
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chongkham
NA
1
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
Wakro
NA
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
Lathao
NA
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Tezu
NA
1
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
Sunpura
NA
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 

 

Area and Production of Horticulture crops in Lohit District 2007-08

S. No.
Name of crop
Area in ha
Production in MT
Fruit Crops and Plantation crops
1
Orange ( Khasi mandarin ) 2175.89 2460.86
2
Pineapple 135.38 514.88
3
Banana 111.29 1199.9
4
Papaya 16.58 29
5
Guava 15.9 8.86
6
Mango 16.51 4.42
7
Assam Lemon 26.35 60.06
8
Litchi 34.9 76.1
9
Coconut 76 56.6
10
Arecanut 11 1.50
11
Jackfruit 9 9
12
Vegetables 2300 6900
Tuber crops
13
Colocasia 925 4301
14
Tapioca 358 1653
15
Sweet potato 435 2001
Spices and condiments
16
Ginger 890 7324
17
Turmeric 110 387
18
Chilly 125 190
19
Garlic 23 42
20
Onion 15 39
21
Large cardamom 31.2 15.2
22
Black Pepper 50 28.5
Total
  7918 25609

Source: DHO, Tezu

 

Fisheries in Lohit District

Lohit district is traversed by many rivers like Kamlang, Noa Dihing, Tenga pani, Teang, Bereng, Digaru etc. and the regions at the foot hills are covered with dense tropical forests and are intersected by deep ravines and water courses. All these rivers and the natural water bodies provide a good scope for development in the fishery sector.

Presently fish ponds under private and public sectors are 456 in number. Existing 71 ha areas are under pisiculture, and annual fish production is only 300 ton. The culture potential resources, in the shape of ponds and tanks etc are not utilized properly.
 

Fish products

The products, described below are either available in the local market all the year round or occasionally at the time of local festivals of the different tribes inhabiting the district. Some are ready to eat preparations (pasa, pachau, palam and paping) and are quite relished by the local people. These are consumed mainly with steamed rice (tupla bhat).

Pasa:

It is highly liked drink among the Khamti Tribe. Preparation involves deskinning of riverine fishes first and finely chopping the fish flesh first. Thereafter the skin and head parts are roasted and crushed. Finally these things are mixed with Orium leaf extract, some herbs, water and others are accepted with delicacy.

Pachau:

Fresh Riverine fishes are dressed and cut into pieces. Then it is mixed with locally available herbs and spices, and finally boiled for serving.

Palam:

Preparation is similar to Pachau but the mixed ingredients are poured into bamboo. A little water is then added and the mouth of the bamboo is covered with leaves and put over fire for cooking until the bamboo gets slightly burnt.

Paping:

Riverine fishes are dressed properly and scored. Then in bamboo stick, it is roasted by keeping by the side of fire. The golden coloured product is very much preferred by the local people.

Sun dried fish:

At the end of the rainy season, small fishes are caught from different water bodies which are then washed and kept for drying as such. Such types of dried fishes emit foul smell but are relished by the local people very much .

Smoked fish:

Small fishes collected from any type of water bodies are generally smoked. It becomes dark brown or golden in colour, and is sold in the local markets.
 

 

 
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